It’s been almost three months since the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion caused the largest oil spill in United States history.
As of June 15, the government estimated that up to 60,000 barrels of oil were spilling into the Gulf of Mexico daily. The latest attempt to cap the spill seems to be holding, and as of this writing, there is no evidence of new leaks into the Gulf.
In addition to oil, other gasses such as methane, a potent global warming gas, were also released. If the cap holds, both BP’s and the public’s focus will now shift almost exclusively to cleanup and coastal protection efforts, both of which will stretch far into the foreseeable future.
One of the mitigation methods used thus far has been the immersion of absorbent booms, which are used to soak up the oil spilling into the Gulf. Matter of Trust, which finds innovative ways to reuse manmade and natural surplus has been working tirelessly in the Gulf region to construct and distribute absorbent booms.
The booms are created by stuffing donated nylons with hair clippings from everything from dog fur to human hair. According to co-founder and organization president Lisa Craig Gautier, the fur and hair is coming from locations “all over the U.S. and 30 other countries.”
Earth911 even got in on the act and donated hair collected from local salons as well as from family and friends. The booms are being used to protect estuaries and nurseries all along the Gulf.
“Volunteers are ‘booming’ like mad, and this Saturday a couple of thousand booms went to protect the dolphin and manatee estuary in Weeks Bay from oil coming into Alabama,” Gautier says.
Those wishing to donate or volunteer should visit the Matter of Trust website.
More ways to help
While many people have expressed interest in volunteering, it is important that those involved with the cleanup efforts are properly trained. BP and its contractors are now hiring much of the work force involved with the cleanup.
There are several organizations working in the Gulf that are seeking volunteers and donations, and the Deepwater Horizon official response website offers updated state-by-state opportunities. There will also be a need for volunteers for months, even years to come.
“In addition to the volunteers needed now to help with monitoring the effects of the spill, once cleanup is over, there will be a massive need for restoration, and volunteers will certainly be needed for those types of projects,” says Chasidy Fisher Hobbs, the Coastkeeper for Emerald Coastkeeper.
There are also plenty of ways to help without traveling to the Gulf. Consider donating to and joining the advocacy campaigns of organizations working to protect and restore the Gulf, such as The National Audubon Society and The Waterkeeper Alliance.
Working to protect the water and wildlife
In addition to the efforts of BP and other governmental agencies such as the Coast Guard and NOAA, many nonprofit organizations are also working to mitigate some of the many devastating effects of the spill.
Emerald Coastkeeper, which works to protect the diverse ecosystems in the northern Florida region of the Gulf of Mexico, has seen the devastation from the oil spill firsthand. According to Hobbs, there is a lot of uncertainty about the extent of the damage; this lack of clarity, combined with the fact that there is no clear end in sight are some of the most difficult aspects of the situation.
“We are used to hurricanes in the Gulf Coast, but the suspense only lasts for a few days,” Hobbs says. “Now we are all just sitting and watching the spill get bigger and bigger, and the 90 days of anxiety is weighing heavily; it’s like everybody is holding their breath.”
“Now that [the Unified Command] has dispersed the majority of the oil coming out, it is tough to say what the damage is going to be, and there is no talk about getting [the dispersed oil] out of the Gulf’s water column,” she continues. “The idea right now seems to be to disperse the oil and let it break down on its own, and we don’t know what the long-term ecological or health impacts will be.”
Initially the focus of Hobbs and all of the Waterkeepers who work with The Waterkeeper Alliance had been resource protection and preparation.
An area action plan that had been put together in the early 1990s – before her county had an environmental department – had to be updated, and the implementation of the updated plan had to be approved by Incident Command, which is a part of the Deepwater Horizon Unified Command run by BP, the Coast Guard and other governmental agencies.
The focus quickly changed, however, as news from Louisiana offered her organization a preview of what was to come.
“The deflection booms are ineffective in any sort of choppy water, and nearly 2.5 million gallons of dispersant have been used to break down the oil through both aerial and deep water injection, which drops the oil down into the water column away from the surface,” Hobbs explains.
“The idea was to break down the oil and sink it into the water column to protect the shorelines, estuaries and nurseries, but it quickly became apparent that the shorelines were being impacted anyway. Also, the dispersants increase bioaccumulation of oil anywhere from 12 to 50,000 times in the organisms that come into contact with the broken down oil particles. We have no idea how much of this is entering the food chain of the Gulf.”
While The Gulf Waterkeepers remain committed to resource protection, their focus has now shifted to documenting the shoreline, so they will have all of the necessary information about the impact of the spill when it is time for the next step – National Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA). Volunteers all along the Gulf Coast, who are working with the Gulf Waterkeepers, have adopted a section of shoreline to monitor.
The Waterkeepers are also focusing on the health and mental effects of the Gulf Disaster on the region’s residents. But Hobbs calls this is just the “tip of the iceberg as far as human health and environmental impacts.”
“In my area of Northwest Florida, tourism is the No. 1 industry. Just two weeks before the rig exploded, we were celebrating a victory of keeping oil rigs out of Florida State waters for at least another year,” Hobbs says.
“We are a tourism-based economy, and the argument was that we didn’t want to risk having the possibility of a disaster like this in a place so dependent on tourism. We’re really going to see the effects of the spill when the cleanup jobs are gone and the tourism hasn’t yet picked up again.”
Reduce your use
The disaster in the Gulf further highlights the importance of reducing our overall dependence on fossil fuels as well as the need for more stringent safety rules.
As Hobbs says, “I hope what will come out of this will be a change to many of these regulations and a greater focus on alternative sources of energy.” Campaigns like My Gulf Action run by Climate Culture encourage people to pledge to take specific actions to reduce their use of fossil fuels.
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Homepage Photo: Cleanup operations by Miller Environmental Group on the beach in Grand Isle, La. on July 2, 2010. Flickr/BP America