Much has changed in the world of recycling in the past few decades. It went from being a niche practice to something most Americans have easy access to. In 2014, 89 million tons of municipal solid waste was recycled or composted, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Recycling rates increased dramatically in the ’80s and ’90s and have plateaued in the past decade. Despite recycling being so widespread, many myths persist. This is partially because recycling has become so complex, and many previous facts are now outdated. Let’s take a look at some of those recycling myths and how they came to be.
Myth 1: Single-stream recycling is always a bad idea
Over time, the number of cities using single-stream recycling — that is, asking residents to put all recyclables in the same bin — has steadily increased. Many people argue that this is the wrong move, as the quality of the materials is lower and more of the materials end up in a landfill. Plus, glass containers are likely to break, making them more difficult to be recycled.
However, single-stream recycling makes recyclables easier to transport, is a simpler system for residents to use and has increased recycling rates. Greener Pittsburgh has said that, on average, 50 percent more recyclables are collected with single-stream recycling, and Waste Management claims an increased rate of around 30 percent. These higher rates more than compensate for the additional materials that end up in a landfill. And because many materials recovery facilities now rely on machines and workers and not residents to sort recyclables, it’s easier than ever to get everything into its proper category. Magnets, infrared spectrometers and other types of technologies do the dirty work of separating out cans from different types of plastics from cardboard.
Yes, single-stream recycling has its trade-offs, but it’s not a uniformly bad idea.
Myth 2: Recycling plastic reduces waste
Again, this myth is largely false if you look at the big picture. A brief look at the history of plastic bottle recycling offers insight as to why. The first polyethylene terephthalate (PET) disposable soda bottle was introduced to the market in 1975. Before that, beverage manufacturers used refillable glass bottles, which put the burden on businesses to transport, clean and refill them.
The beverage industry was therefore incentivized to create a lightweight disposable alternative. Plastic bottles are very convenient because they do not break as easily as glass bottles and are lighter to transport, saving energy. Disposable plastic bottles also enabled centralized beverage manufacturing, because the glass bottles no longer needed to be returned to a facility.
Once plastic bottles were introduced, however, cities and towns were overwhelmed by the quantities of plastic packaging in the waste stream and started demanding solutions, according to Samantha MacBride, author of the book Recycling Reconsidered. The plastic packaging and beverage industry encouraged recycling instead of regulating or banning disposable plastic bottles. Now, four decades later, disposable plastic packaging is barely regulated and the burden of waste management falls on local governments and not beverage producers. Sadly, plastic recycling is so complex that lots of materials end up in landfills, and plastic is often transported across the globe to find markets for the recycled materials.
Although plastic recycling certainly can reduce waste, it has also helped prevent more effective legislation and systemic sustainable practices. There are so many different types of resins and processes used in manufacturing plastic bottles, making sorting and recycling infinitely more complicated and expensive. Now, China is starting to ban the import of plastics, shifting the plastic recycling landscape. Sadly, some recycling plants have even closed, and lots of plastic is going to landfills. If oil prices increase, this trend may stop. Legislation to make plastics more recyclable by banning the least recyclable types would be a big step in a more sustainable direction.
Myth 3: It isn’t worth recycling
Although our recycling system could be greatly improved, recycling is overall a good thing. A look at national recycling rates sheds light on what is working and what isn’t with recycling.
According to EPA data, 99 percent of lead-acid batteries (found in cars and trucks), 88.5 percent of corrugated cardboard boxes and 67 percent of newspapers were recycled in 2013. Unfortunately, only 28.2 percent of PET containers (such as milk jugs), 13.5 percent of plastic bags and wraps, and 6.2 percent of small appliances were recycled. An impressive 60.2 percent of yard trimmings were composted, yet only 5 percent of food waste was. Not surprisingly, states with bottle deposits also have higher recycling rates.
These facts indicate that our recycling system needs to be fine-tuned to benefit people and the planet the most. Our recycling system would be greatly improved if the hardest-to-recycle plastics were banned, and if there were more comprehensive programs for electronics recycling and food waste composting.
In the meantime, this is the system that we have, so let’s make the best of it. Make sure you know what materials are accepted in your local recycling program, encourage others to recycle, and support commonsense ways to improve the system moving forward.