Start your environmental and sustainability reading with us! We read a lot so you don’t have to. Every week, Earth911 Reader delivers the must-read articles around the web you should know to be up-to-date on stories that share our understanding of the issues. This week is science-centric with a slew of new research that will concern and encourage. Check out our three action opportunities this week and help move important environmental- and sustainability-related projects.
For the First Time, Plastics Shown to Enter Human Organs
A study of human tissue collected over many years for other medical studies shows that lung, liver, spleen and kidney samples studied contain both micro- and nano-plastics. Bisphenol A (BPA), a commons food container liner, was found in all the samples -every one tested. These plastics range in size from 5mm to 0.001mm. The researchers at Arizona State University will release an online analytics tool for use by other scientists. Varun Kelkar, one of the researchers, told Phys.org: “Once we get a better idea of what’s in the tissues, we can conduct epidemiological studies to assess human health outcomes. That way, we can start to understand the potential health risks, if any.” Plastics have been shown to be hazardous to health in numerous studies.
The Scope of Climate Change In Hard Numbers
Nature published an important report with visual representations of the realities of climate change. It explains the different CO2 emissions contributions and the failing progress of countries in reaching the Paris Accord goals. And it addresses fairness issues, youth action, and the distribution of energy production technologies around the world — for example, China uses 50% of the coal consumed annually while the U.S. coal use now accounts for 8.2% of the global total. Read it and think.
What Caused Sea Level Rise Since 1900? People.
While there have been many changes to the water cycle since the beginning of the 20th Century, human activity accounts for virtually all the recorded rise in sea level, a new study from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology reports. After accounting for the thermal expansion of seawater, lost water flow because of dammed rivers, and other factors, the report found that “no additional processes are required to explain the observed changes in sea level since 1900.” It’s us, humans raised temperatures, which increased glacier melting rates.
Women Will Be Hit Harder By Climate Change
CleanTechica reports on a new study from the International Union for Conservation of Nature that finds women are 14 times more likely to die as a result of climate change than men. This is an equity issue, a gender issue, and a vast policy challenge because women’s limited access to financial resources place them in harm’s way as global temperatures climb and sea level rises. They do not have the same resources to respond or move away from climate impacts such as flooding and extreme heat. When race is factored in, women suffer even more. This is an important report that could be ignored by many major media. Read it.
Greenland Ice Loss Crossed A Tipping Point 20 Years Ago
Inside Climate News reports the very bad news that Greenland’s ice sheets have begun a phase of precipitous decline since 2000 that may be completely irreversible without dramatic changes to human carbon emissions. According to Ohio State University’s Ian Howat, “Glacier retreat has knocked the dynamics of the whole ice sheet into a constant state of loss. Even if we were to stabilize at current temperatures, the ice will continue to disintegrate more quickly than if we hadn’t messed with the climate to begin with.” While it will take millennia for all the ice to disappear, Greenland holds enough frozen water to raise sea level by 20 feet.
Sustainable Ocean Mariculture Is Feasible, Research Shows
Nature reports on new research by the Bren School of Environmental Science and Management and Environmental Market Solutions Lab at the University of California, Santa Barbara that finds 16% more meat could be harvested from the ocean sustainably by 2050 while overall sea-source food could rise by 36% to 74% in the same time. Today, sea-grown meat accounts for 17% of human protein consumption. Changes to regulations, improved fish feed in marine farming, and investments to change demand, i.e. better marketing of seafood, are needed, the research concludes.
10 Times The Plastic In The Atlantic Than Previously Thought
The Guardian reports on recent research by the UK National Oceanography Centre that found there is 10 times the amount of plastic in the Atlantic Ocean than previous estimates. They estimate that between 12 million and 21 million tons of microplastics are present in top 200 meters beneath the surface of the Atlantic. Plastic pollution, now that microplastics have been found in 100% of human tissues sampled (see above), must be addressed to improve our safety and quality of life, as well as to preserve marine ecologies.
Making Energy Like Plants Do: Key to a Green Economy
Phys.org reports on an Israeli research team’s discovery of a method for using the machinery of photosynthesis to produce energy that emits only water and oxygen. Taking a cue from nature, the team mimicked a protein complex in plants using nanoparticles that convert 100% of the solar light applied to the system into hydrogen, a fuel that can be used to generate energy in industrial and home settings. The research was presented at this week’s American Chemical Society (ACS) Fall 2020 Virtual Meeting & Expo.
COVID-19 Accelerates the Ocean Plastics Crisis
The combination of COVID-19 driving mask and glove use, increased use food delivery packaging and utensils, along with sharp declines in oil prices during the lockdown has put the plastic industry into high gear. The waste is reaching our oceans at a record clip because recycling systems around the world are failing to respond to the flood of single-use plastics, Scientific American reports. Dave Ford, cofounder of the Ocean Plastics Leadership Network, calls for transparency throughout the supply chains that feed, clothe, and equip humanity to shine a light on where plastics can be reduced or intercepted before they reach nature.
Coastal Groundwater at Greater Risk Than Thought, Research Shows
Nature Climate Change reports that coastal groundwater, such as aquifers in California, will be inundated by rising seas and face 20% greater saltwater intrusion risks than previously forecast. This will harm crops and amplify the water crisis in coastal communities, driving more people to migrate in response to climate change. In particular, the study shows that the San Francisco Bay Area and inland farming will be severely impacted by saltwater intrusion this century. 13.8% to 43.9% of these populated areas are at risk.
Estimating the Social Cost of Carbon
Nature Climate Change reports on a research project by the SIPA Center on Global Energy Policy, Columbia University, that finds the value of removing or not emitting a ton of CO2 emissions will be between $34 and $64 in 2025 and rise to $77 to $124 in 2030. The future cost of a ton of carbon emitted today is key to understanding the impact of our actions. For example, if you cause $100 of damage in the future when you emit a ton of carbon this year (and you will emit between 2.4 and 18 tons of carbon as an average American), how should that be priced to create incentives to either 1.) not emit the CO2 in the first place, or 2.) capture and sequester that CO2 to reduce the negative impacts.
Tropical Soils Release More CO2 When Warmed
The Earth is a massive carbon storage system that holds far more carbon than humanity has released to date. While permafrost warming is well known as a threat to release CO2, tropical soil has not been widely studied. New research published in Nature reports that tropical soil warmed by 4-degrees Centigrade for two years increased the CO2 emitted by 55%. Microbes were responsible for the added emissions. This is not good news because it suggests climate change will be self-reinforcing in the tropics and regions where permafrost occurs.
Cattle and Prairie Can — Must — Coexist
The Nature Conservancy and Oregon ranchers have formed a working alliance based on scientific analysis of the role of cattle grazing in grassland ecosystems, The Guardian reports. A 20-year partnership has demonstrated that ongoing “disturbance” by herbivores — cattle and before that horses and antelope — are essential to the health of prairie. The story includes lovely descriptions of the remote Zumwalt Prairie Preserve, a place that few ever see. We recommend this long read as an example of how to rethink the perceived opposition of different lifestyles can coexist within the limits of our planet.
National Recycling Strategy Stalled, Pivots to Local
Resource Recycling reports on progress around a national deposit program and producer responsibility bill, the Break Free From Plastic Pollution Act introduced by Representatives Tom Udall (D-N.M.) and Alan Lowenthal (D-Calif.). Stuck in committee since last Spring, the bill would introduce extended producer responsibility and require a minimum percentage of recycled content in many products — plastics makers object to these guidelines. An Oregon deposit program has resulted in an 86% redemption rate for plastic containers, a substantial increase from 64% in 2016. Udall and Lowenthal circulated a memo and plan for local and state leaders to use to implement parts of the plan last week. They hope to bring more pressure for a national standard, which would help bring order to recycling programs and to pressure federal lawmakers to act.
Treating CO2 As a Waste Management Problem
Holly Jean Buck writes in The Royal Society’s review of carbon recovery articles that handling carbon dioxide as a waste product to be managed like other leftover industrial and consumer waste would make it easier for policymakers, businesses, and citizens to understand and support. Making this change in perspective translates CO2 from a useless and harmful byproduct of our way of life into an “emergent resource to be used in novel products.” Buck explores the history of waste management in a very readable way.
Business Could Save $46 Billion With Sustainable Packaging
Environmental Leader reports on the introduction of a Circular Design Principles program by DS Smith, a sustainable-packaging manufacturer. The first surveyed consumers, 93% of whom said they receive packaging with lots of wasted space (which must be filled with largely unrecyclable packing materials), 54% adding that they would take that into account when making their next order. That means the business that sends wasteful packaging is actually turning customers off. DS Smith and the Ellen MacArthur Foundation estimate that improved packaging and delivery sustainability could save business $46 billion annually. See the article for the five Circular Design Principles introduced by the company.
Mr. Selfridge Would Like His Department Store’s Direction
A ceaseless innovator, British department store Selfridge’s has committed to becoming a net-zero company by 2050 and to source reduce its emissions by 30% before 2030. Additionally, it will source all its products from sustainable suppliers by 2025, Business Green reports. The Earth911 take — Here is what is needed: A transparent supply chain that can be reviewed not just by retailers but also the consumer who is considering how to spend responsibly. Understanding the provenance of what we buy and use is essential to transforming the economy into one that does not simply extract and pollute without any accountability. Consumer packaged goods giant Unilever has pioneered improved tracking of where materials are sourced but there is a long, long way to go before everyone is able to make well-informed environmentally-friendly economic decisions.
Microsoft’s Circular Strategy
Microsoft recently announced aggressive carbon reduction and recyclability goals, summarized by E-Scrap News. The company’s approach to upgrading equipment in its data centers, which is an exercise in erasing, recycling, and optimizing equipment, is an interesting example of sustainability thinking. Microsoft will build “circular centers” close to data centers to minimize transportation of used gear and divert 90% of solid waste from landfills and incinerators. See Microsoft’s blog for additional details about its plans to remove single-use plastic from packaging and make its Surface computers 100% recyclable by 2030.
Steps to Circularity Plan Targets Plastic Sorting
Ali Balinda, the Director of Circular Ventures at The Recycling Partnership explains the organization’s Steps to Circularity plan, focusing in particular on sorting plastics. While Plastics #1 – 3 are widely recycled, Plastic #4 through #7 are rarely collected or recycled despite the technology being available. It turns out the materials recovery facilities (MRFs) don’t have the capital to buy the machines needed to identify these plastics — even too much PET #1 plastic slips through the cracks. An Earth911 idea: Let’s finance these machines for MRFs by pre-purchasing the plastics they will recover when put into action. By committing to purchase the first 5,000 or five million tons of plastic, we can kickstart the recovery of Plastics #4 through #7.
Plastic-Asphalt Roadways From Plastic #1 Scrap
TechniSoil a Redding, Calif.-based company that pioneered sustainable landscaping, recently spun out a company to make road paving material from PET plastic that replaces petrochemicals as the binding agent in asphalt, Resource Recycling reports. The California Department of Transportation used the material in a section of roadway in July. TechniSoil will begin with a small percentage of the material made from plastic but believes it can increase PET to 20% to 35% of a roadway. If we can move from today’s 8% plastic recycling rate to a world where plastic is recycled several times and then used to make roads and structures, it will be a much more sustainable one. No more single-use plastic!
Solar Panel Recycling Sees Uptick But Is Recycling Ready?
Earth911 has written about the urgent need to be ready to recycle photovoltaic solar panels, and the first of these products are reaching the end of their useful life. This will result in “megatons of trash about to occur,” Hydrogen Fuel News reports. There is plenty of value in the panels, which include silicon and silver but also contain lead and other toxins. By 2050, the article reports, 78 million metric tons of PV panels will need to be recycled, with six million tons more coming each year.
Bioleaching Can Clean Up e-Waste
44.7 million tons of electronic waste was produced globally in 2017, and most of it ended up in landfills despite the immense value of the materials they contain. The Conversation reports on the use, grounded in human history, of bleaching — using bacteria and fungi — to process e-waste to retrieve the metals from old circuit boards and other electronic components. It’s a practice used by miners as long ago as the Roman Empire. A very interesting read with implications for how modern society can manage its increasingly digital infrastructure’s emerging waste crises.
Electric Weed Control Makes A Comeback
IEEE Spectrum reports on the reemergence of electric weed control, a technology first used by railroads in the late 1800s. When used safely, it promises to root out weeds without chemicals, eliminating a source of toxins in the human food chain. RootWave, a Kineton, U.K.-based company is using high-frequency electricity to zap weeds in farm settings. The choice of power is key to making the technology effective and safe, as lower-frequency power is more prone to cause cardiac arrest. While there are now home solutions for dandelions and crabgrass, yet, we look forward to more advances in alternatives to pesticides and herbicides.
Hyundai Kona EV Reaches 620 Miles On a Single Charge
In the “Things Improve” category, EV ranges is getting better. CleanTechica reports that a Kia Kona EV has achieved an apparent record, traveling up to 620 miles on one charge. Several different reports of this have been confirmed. Despite being rated by the Environmental Protection Agency as having a 258-mile ranges, the Kona EV delivered this range, albeit without air conditioning and other features turned on. The Kona starts at $37,495, according to Consumer Reports, and is eligible for federal and state EV tax credits.
In Action You Can Take
Earth Day’s End Plastic Pollution Campaign
Our friends at Earth Day launched a plastic awareness campaign to wake people up to how much plastic they use daily and monthly, helping folks set reduction goals. The project will communicate to policymakers and corporations but there are great tools to calculate your plastic usage. Be sure to download the End Plastic Pollution toolkit, a guide to help you and your workplace identify plastic reduction opportunities.
Generation Green Builds Black Youth Environmental Leaders
We received an email about a program you should know, Generation Green, an intergenerational program to develop strong environmental leadership in the Black community is raising money to support digital networking, education and equity-building programs at historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). They are advocating for a just transition to a green economy and need support to do so Consider donating to their GoFundMe campaign.
A Reusable Mug Made From Recycled Coffee Cups
We were impressed with a Kickstarter project this week, the Circular Travel Mug. This 16-ounce mug is made from recovered single-use coffee cups and is designed to last 10 years. At this writing, they’ve raised $11,169, more than the $10,000 they needed — that means they are highly likely to deliver on this great idea. Check them out.