Your EV Battery: Its Life and Afterlife

Toyota EV-86 battery

The past decade brought us the commercial availability of electric vehicles (EVs) and by 2025, every major automaker will have some model of EV on the road. What makes EVs so different is the replacement of carbon-dioxide-spewing internal combustion engine with a large battery. The benefit is increased sustainability, assuming you charge your EV battery with electricity from clean, renewable energy sources.

Most EVs run on lithium-ion batteries, thanks to their favorable energy-to-weight ratio and longevity compared to other batteries. I won’t get into the fundamentals of batteries in this article, but there are great articles on lithium-ion battery technology.

Extending the Life of EV Batteries

One of the best ways to increase a product’s sustainability is to get the most use out it before giving it another purpose. There are many ways to extend the life of batteries; here are some basics you should know.

Most importantly, avoid overcharging and deeply discharging your battery. For the best battery lifespan, keep your battery from 20 to 80 percent charged. A charge above 80 percent is considered overcharging, and under 20 percent is a deep discharge. When possible, drive your EV until the battery reaches 20 percent, and then charge it on a timer to 80 percent. Try to limit 100 percent charges to long-distance trips.

High electric currents also create a major strain on the battery. Avoid quick-charging your EV’s battery or flooring its acceleration pedal — both will damage the battery. By driving conservatively and slow-charging the battery, you’ll reduce the likelihood of straining your battery with high electric currents.

Other strains on the battery are mitigated through a factory-installed battery management system (BMS). Basically, a BMS maintains and tracks the battery performance and safeguards it against the strains mentioned above. The BMS is a good indicator for when the battery needs to be replaced or serviced.

electric car at charging station

Protect your EV battery’s life by driving conservatively and slow-charging. Photo: andreas160578 from Pixabay

When To Replace the EV Battery

If you have concerns about your battery’s performance, get it inspected by a qualified technician.

Because EVs are still relatively new, there’s a shortage of qualified EV technicians, so the dealership is the best place to take your EV for servicing. Their technicians will be able to diagnose, repair, and replace that EV’s battery.

Most EV batteries have an approximate lifespan of seven to 10 years and are warrantied for at least eight years and 100,000 miles. So, if you keep your EV long enough, you will eventually need to replace the battery.

The Afterlife of an EV Battery

Once your EV battery degrades to 70 percent, you will likely replace the battery or the car. Fortunately, some companies are working on ways to recycle and repurpose used EV batteries, extending their useful life.

Recycling

The many materials in the battery and the advanced chemical procedures required make recycling a difficult and costly proposition.

One of the companies leading the effort to make lithium-ion battery recycling possible is Li-Cycle. Their proprietary process can recycle 100 percent of the lithium solution from the battery. After they dismantle the battery, the dismantled parts can be reused to assemble a new battery. One of the most important steps is deactivating or freezing each cell to keep it from chemically reacting and creating a hazard. Once that’s done, another process separates the metals from solvents and electrolytes to use in making a new battery cell.

So, a battery can be recycled but my major concerns are the hazards and by-products from this process. If an old EV battery still has some life to it, repurposing is the better choice.

Repurposing

Even though the battery can no longer efficiently power a vehicle, it can still store energy. A company called RePurpose Energy repurposes these batteries to take advantage of their remaining usefulness.

RePurpose Energy created a modular battery pack from old EV and hybrid batteries that can be used for industrial-sized energy storage solutions. Even though the batteries can no longer power vehicles, they are ideal for stationary energy storage. Companies like RePurpose see the potential for repurposing these EV batteries for back-up power supply, solar energy storage, electric grid buffering power, and more.

Repurposed EV batteries for stationary storage

Used EV batteries can be repurposed to store energy for a wide range of applications.

Make Your EV More Sustainable

It seems likely that electric vehicles are the future, so it’s logical to make them as sustainable as possible. The easiest way for you to help is by adjusting your driving and charging habits to help extend the life of your EV’s battery.

By supporting companies that recycle and repurpose used EV batteries, organizations and governments can encourage the reuse of valuable materials — and keep them out of landfills. With sufficient research, planning, and support, one day it may be possible to recycle or repurpose an entire car.

About the Author

Derek McKee is a R&D chemist in the coatings industry. Because of his background, he really likes to educate others about personal safety and environmental protection. Writing lets him reach more people than the ones in his company.

Feature image: Tokumeigakarinoaoshima [CC0], Wikimedia Commons

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Comments

  1. Pingback: » Your EV Battery: Its Life and Afterlife – Earth911.comsolarequipmentinstaller.com

  2. Overall a relatively accurate article, but the author uses outdated information regarding “When to Replace the EV Battery” which is half of the title and skims over the subject. The author gives the impression that most likely you’ll be replacing your battery in 7-10 years on your current model EV regardless of the miles you drive or how you treat the battery. While at the same time says “warrantied at least eight years 100,000mi.” Keep in mind, all EVs sold in CA have a 10yr 150,000mi warranty and “Lifetime battery warranty” for a Hyundai Kona EV. Do you really think that the average replacement is 7-10 years? If so, the EV manufacturers will need to replace on average more than ½ of all EV batteries for cars sold in CA before their warranty expires just based on a normal distribution curve. I’m not thinking that’s in their business model. Just for the longevity portion, the reference in the article above points to an Institute for Energy Research commentary which sounds authoritative until you find out who funds IER and that the commentary just references a Bloomberg business article focusing on old Nissan Leaf batteries with blanket referenceless statements about cars and buses using batteries. I’m sure we can all point to Leaf horror stories of battery degradation with their older battery chemistry and lack of thermal management. Good thing they didn’t sell that many of them. I still can’t recommend buying a Leaf in extreme heat areas like AZ where the asphalt hits 160°. Imagine sitting in that traffic? In the future, there is actual data on batteries now that the longer life (and thermally managed) ones have been out for a few years rather than “expert speculation”. More current information was referenced a little in the CR article. I know Bolt owners with over 150,000 miles charging to 100% daily plus fast charging each day as an Uber driver with a 7% drop in capacity in the 3 years they’ve had them. Others have reported as much as 8% in 70,000mi, but later realized they made a mistake calculating because they just assumed the starting capacity and didn’t measure it. After corrections based on when they started actually measuring the capacity, they found a 5% degradation in 100,000mi. The real answer is we don’t know how long the latest generation will last. The latest predictions for the Bolt are in the neighborhood of 500,000 mi for the battery before hitting 80%. One thing we do know, it’s definitely miles (charge cycles) related more than time at the moment. We’ll see in 20 years if age becomes a factor. Many other EV manufacturers that use LG batteries see similar results as well as Telsa’s Panasonic cells.

    Then comes recycling. There the author focuses on the lithium in a lithium-ion battery as if the 8lbs out of a typical 900lb 60kWh battery module is the most important part to recycle rather than the 600lbs of nickel as well as the other materials like aluminum, steel, magnesium, and kobalt that are in much more significant quantities.

  3. Pingback: Do Electric Vehicles Require Less Maintenance? | Earth911.com

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